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 IWPD Scale Metrics (ISM) is a featured accomplishment of the IWPD Research Center.  ISM uses an innovative coordinate system that allows four-dimensional space-time to be fully described using only three dimensions.  This is achieved by embedding time within a spatial dimension.  The resulting entity is a two-dimensional segment plotted within a three-dimensional coordinate system.  ISM modeling describes time as expanding within our spatial awareness as opposed to the abstract orthogonal relationship required by General Relativity.  We are highly encouraged by the success of ISM and its contribution to some of the current challenges in Cosmology.

 ISM predicts:

  • The age of the universe to be 14.2 billion years
  • An acceleration in the rate of universal expansion consistent with Type Ia supernova observations
  • The density of matter (Baryonic and Lambda Cold Dark Matter) to be in alignment with observation
  • An explanation of the large value of the Planck Mass in relationship to the much smaller mass of observed particles by defining a new fundamental mass
  • The fundamental mass, the electron and the proton are all shown to have relationship to each other and to a unified background field
  • Dark Energy may be shown to have physical properties through the decomposition of matter into free space.
  • A unification of gravitation with QED and Strong Nuclear Forces as they each play out within a unified Background Energime Field (BEF)



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